Saturday, May 17, 2014

Continuing progress on "hand" rudder control



We just finished the rudder hand control for our Piper PA22-108. Two test flights proved the control was completely adequate for taxi, take-off, cruise and landing. I flew the aircraft first and then my son Aaron flew using the control. He actually did a better job on landing than me! Single or both seats occupied, the aircraft was completely controllable. FAA paperwork is in process. Captured a bit of video of the first flight. Will post in Vimeo when the editing is complete.
As a side note: the Piper PA22 is an excellent aircraft for disabled flyers. The right hand can easily control throttle, brakes, stab trim and wit the hand control- rudder.

Saturday, April 5, 2014

Colt Flying

http://vimeo.com/76782959     

Watch this really really cool video of Aaron (17 yrs) flying a Piper Colt.

Boyington and Sakai:

Aerial Warriors

 

            In many ways, fighting men and women are portrayed as very similar in that they are painted with a broad brush. Many perceptions of military personnel are of cookie-cutter soldiers of similar attributes. Although both Gregory “Pappy” Boyington and Saburo Sakai were both accomplished fighter aces in the World War II Pacific Theater, these men were very different. Both of these men flew for their respective naval fleets, fought in China, were seriously wounded  and after the war were distinguished as heroes. However, both men’s personal stories and character were very different.

            Gregory “Pappy” Boyington, was raised by his mother and stepfather in Tacoma, Washington and was a graduate of  The University of Washington. He secured a job with Boeing as a technical draftsman before entering military service. Shortly after joining the Marines, he volunteered to fight the Japanese in China under the “Flying Tiger” squadron.  The Americans who fought and flew as a “Flying Tiger” were not driven by lofty virtuous goals to help the Chinese. Rather, Americans were paid a sum of $250 for every Japanese aircraft destroyed. Boyington engaged in mercenary work and gained valuable experience that would contribute to his total of 28 victories in China and the Pacific. Also, the 28 victories was a record for Marine aviation during the Second World War. 

Pappy Boyington is credited with starting the famous VMF216 marine squadron, nicknamed the “Black Sheep Squadron”. Although haphazardly started and recognized as a less than a stellar squadron, the “Black Sheep” racked up an amazing amount of victories in the Pacific. One aspect of Boyington’s squadron, was the excessive alcohol consumption. Greg Boyington was known to drink far too much and that continued until his death on January 11, 1988. On January 3, 1944, Boyington scored his 28th victory and was quickly shot down with his wingman Captain George Ashmun. Captain Ashmun did not survive the encounter, but Boyington bailed out and was taken captive by a Japanese submarine.  After induction to a Japanese prisoner of war camp, he experienced beatings and starvation for 20 months. His POW camp was liberated August 28, 1945. Boyington was honored for his military service and received the Medal of Honor presented to him by President Harry Truman.

After the war, Boyington was regarded as a national hero. Although he also possessed a degree in aeronautical engineering, Boyington could only manage to secure menial jobs and struggled financially for the remainder of his life.  Boyington admitted later in life that alcohol was the most damning thing in his character. Frank Walton, alumni of VMF214, stated in his book Once they were Eagles, "Boyington went through a series of lurid, broken marriages and bounced from one job to another: beer salesman, stock salesman, jewelry salesman, wrestling referee. Liquor was always present." All of these unsuccessful points of his life could be contributed to his alcoholism (Walton 115).

Saburō Sakai was born on August 25, 1916, in Saga, Japan. Sakai’s lineage was of the Samaria ancestry. He was raised in a household of seven children by his mother. His father died when he was eleven years of age. Later in his youth, he went to live with his uncle and was provided the opportunity to attend Tokyo high school. Sakai failed his academic studies and was sent back to his rural existence in Saga.

            As with many youths with no academic achievement, Sakai enlisted in the Japanese Navy at the age of 16.  Unlike American military training, Japanese use a significant amount of physical abuse during training of recruits. Many Japanese enlisted men were severely beaten on a regular basis on par with Japanese held POW’s.  Sakai completed training initially as a naval gunner but later was accepted into the flying corps. His aerial combat indoctrination occurred in the skies over China prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Very similar to Gregory Boyington, Sakai was gaining valuable aerial combat experience in China. Just one day after the Pearl Harbor attack, December 8, 1941, Sakai attacked Clark Air Base in the Philippines. In his first aerial engagement with Americans, he shot down one fighter aircraft and two bombers. Sakai would continue to rack up victories until an event occurred in 1942 while on patrol in Java. After shooting down an enemy aircraft, Sakai intercepted a large transport aircraft. As he approached the aircraft, he could see a blonde woman and child through the aircraft’s windows. Sakai disobeyed orders to shoot down the aircraft. Later in life when asked why he spared the aircraft, he replied that the blonde woman reminded him of an American school teacher he had as a child. 

Sakai was seriously injured after attacking an American fighter aircraft. He sustained a bullet wound to the head that caused blindness in his right eye. Upon returning to base after almost 5 hours of flight, he insisted on reporting to the base commander before accepting any medical treatment. Later, he would undergo surgery without anesthesia. He was sent to Tokyo for a lengthy recuperation and was discharged from the hospital in January 1943. Sakai remained blind in his right eye and petitioned for a return to active military status.   After much persistence, he was deployed to Iwo Jima.  During the war and his recuperation, he courted one woman to be his wife. Her name was Hatsuyo. Sabaru Saki would later marry and stay with her until her death in 1954. In Sakai’s autobiography Samurai, he ends the book with a happy recollection of his reunion with Hatsuyo after the war has ended. Hatsuyo throws away a dagger that she claimed she would use if Sakai had fallen in battle. “She drew back suddenly and withdrew the dagger from beneath her sash. ‘I will never need it again, she cried, flinging the shining steel to the floor’” (Sakai 375).  This quote says more about Saburo’s character than can be testified by any man.

            After the war, Sakai became a Buddhist, started a printing business and helped fellow comrades with employment. He spoke out about Japan’s mistake in starting the war and the Japanese emperor’s denial of any responsibility. He also initiated contact with many American flight crews that he personally fought against. Saburo continued to pray for all of the soldiers he killed until his death on September 22, 2000.

Although both men were doing their jobs collectively for their countries and many similarities exist during their war years, clearly many facets stand out. Although Gregory Boyington was a high educated and decorated military veteran, he fell on hard times and never fully recovered. Saburo Sakai, although an enlisted non-decorated and uneducated soldier, managed to start a successful business after the war. Both men were married but Boyington’s failed marriages were almost beyond count. Lastly, when you consider these men and observe what life handed them and what they produced, it can be seen that success is not guaranteed without a fair amount of character.

Boyington died on Jan. 11, 1988, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. In summing up his own life, he wrote at the end of his memoir Baa Baa Black Sheep, "If this story were to have a moral, then I would say, 'Just name a hero and I'll prove he's a bum’” (Boyington 350).  One may agree with Boyington, but after seeing a brief view of these men’s life, one may disagree.

 

Friday, January 31, 2014









Gliding Inspiration
            I have learned as I get older that inspiration can come from the most unexpected places or people. It is only with time does the object of inspiration present itself unmistakably.  Parents, having the biggest opportunity to inspire and support, sometimes don’t grasp or take hold of the offering. In the following recollection, I will convey a source of inspiration that I have carried for most of my professional life.
 As a young child, going to the local airport on weekends was a frequent event. With my Dad, you never knew what we would be doing at the airport. One day could be a long flight to wherever, or maybe just a short hop or sometimes we just changed the oil in the airplane and didn’t fly at all. I hated that. As you can imagine a seven year olds attention span is not captured by changing oil on a dusty and deserted airport. We kept our airplane at the local airport South of Las Vegas.  At the time it was called “Sky Harbor”. It was owned and operated by a cranky old pilot that made his entire living in aviation dating back to the 1920’s.   Through a child’s eyes he was mean; he walked with a slight limp and was rumored to be a result of multiple airplane crashes.  The airport buildings were a mix of modern metal hangars and salvaged World War II airfield buildings. They were dank with peeling white paint and smelled of old airplanes.  In the hangars, we snooped around and found wondrous treasures of mysterious aircraft and parts stored in corners and the rafters. I was fascinated by it all but never spoke to the old pilot. It’s a shame though, I am sure he had many interesting stories if you could get past his tough exterior shell. 
One of the other intriguing activities at the airport was the gliders.  If you have not witnessed a glider in powerless flight, it is a graceful and delicate display with hardly a whisper.  Typically these aircraft are designed to carry one or two persons. To become airborne, these craft are towed with a rope behind a powered aircraft called a tow plane. Once the desired altitude is achieved, the tow plane releases the glider. The pilot of the glider has one of two choices: he or she can glide back down to the airport for landing or search for updrafts in the form of rising currents of air. In the desert, rising currents of air are quite common and soaring, as it is called, makes for an enjoyable sport.  Sky harbor was the base of a flight school that offered glider training. On the days that we had mundane work to perform, I prayed for glider operations. It was very entertaining to watch the tow plane slowly grind its way to altitude with a glider in tow.  Upon disconnect of the rope, the tow plane would bank sharply to the left and the glider banks to the right ensuring sufficient clearance between the aircraft.  It is fascinating to watch the gliders perform slow circles searching for elusive lift to stay aloft long after the noisy tow plane had landed. 
On one special weekend at the airport, my Dad motioned for me to follow him. He was walking over to a glider that was being connected to the tow plane. I had watched the glider descend and land just minutes ago and could see the ground personnel preparing the ship for another flight. An older man with a pleasant smile was leaning against the glider adjusting the seat belts and shoulder harnesses. He was a few years more senior than my Dad and was wearing a plaid shirt, jeans and cowboy boots.  He noticed us walking up and addressed us with a hearty, “Hey there, fellas”. “Hello, what’s the cost of a ride?” said my Dad. The man smiled and said “seven dollars for a ride to pattern altitude and twelve dollars for a ride to three thousand feet”. “That’s a good ride because we normally can pick up a few thermals” he said. My Dad paused for a moment, thought about it and said “he’ll take the seven dollar trip”.  Needless to say, I was excited. After all this time watching gliders, I was going for a ride!  “Climb in front son, I’ll get you strapped in” said the man.  I quickly jumped into the front seat. Just forward of the seat was a control stick and a spartan instrument panel.  On the panel was a large red knob. It was odd because it reminded me of a door knob.  The canopy was a clear bubble that covered the forward and aft cockpit. The man climbed in behind me and pulled the canopy down. In the back, I could hear him buckling and adjusting his straps.  On the radio I could hear him communicating with the tow plane, most of which I didn’t understand.  I did catch one part though, “…take us to 3,000 feet”.  Even at my young age, I realized he was going to give me the premium ride to catch some thermals.  The take-off and climb were somewhat similar to a powered airplane except that we were following the tow plane by what now seemed to be quite a thin thread. During the climb, the man patiently explained all of the nuisances of flying in formation behind the tow plane.  At one point as he was explaining another aspect of soaring, I turned around and to look at him and he was happily smiling as he spoke. At the tender age of seven, I felt as though I was being welcomed and indoctrinated into a very special aspect of flying and my guide was somebody who loved what he was doing.  “Hey there son, see that big knob in front of you?”  “Sure do”, I replied.  “Pull on it like you’re trying to pull it out of the panel”.  I reached up and could hardly get my fingers around the knob, so I grabbed it with both hands.  As I put my hands on it, I could slightly feel the vibration from the tow plane resonating through the tow line and into the knob. I pulled hard. With a solid “thunk”, we were free of the tow plane and banking to the right at an extreme angle. I could hear the glider airframe creak and groan under the increased loading on the wings.  It’s funny, you would think without an engine, flying a glider would be especially quiet, but it isn’t. In fact the high pitched whistle of the wind is always present as you fly. The wind noise only changes as you speed your craft or slow down.  We soared and caught a few thermals and the enthusiastic man did his best to treat me to a deluxe glider ride. We finally had to return to the airport and just like anything good in life, it’s always better to quit before the fun ends.  As we approached the runway, in the distance, I could see my Dad waiting for us leaning on one of the other gliders.  Touching down lightly, the glider coasted to the staging area. The canopy was opened and my Dad was walking over quickly. “Wow, you guys were up there for some time”.  To me, the time aloft in the glider wasn’t long enough. Of course, it was long enough to inspire me.  Still tightly strapped in the man said “hey there young man, you can solo a glider at 14. How old are you? 10?” Without shifting his gaze from me and speaking to my Dad, “You know… he’s pretty comfortable up there, seems to have a handle on the machine”. My Dad offered “He’s only 7.” He has a few more years to go and that’s if he doesn’t grow out of it”.  The man started to unbuckle. Over the heavy metal clinking of his harness, “I have a feeling he’s not going to grow out of this.. He has the bug”.  I thanked the man and slowly walked the length of the wing lightly touching it as I went. Thinking back, I never knew the man’s name but I’ll never forget his infectious enthusiasm or encouragement.
Several weeks later, arriving from school and slunking my book bag down my Dad met me at the door.  Without hesitation and in a monotone voice he said “Remember your glider pilot?” I nodded yes. “He and his wife were killed today.”  They were maneuvering low and the gusty winds caused them to stall and crash. The engine came into the cockpit and crushed them both.”  Not skipping a beat, he looked at my older brother and said “Rob! You going to going to get the lawn mowed before the sun goes down?!”  He walked away to perform another task.  As the news sunk into my 7 year old brain, a cold and piercing emotion ripped through my body. Running from the house and across the neighbors house I sat by a cinder block fence looking down at the red dirt. Hot tears flowed and formed puddles of red mud.  I did not cry, but the tears flowed. The neighbor man hurried out of his home, I am guessing, to find out why the kid from across the street was camped out near his fence.  Hey there lad, can’t you find someplace else to sit.  Looking up at him with red swollen wet eyes, he looked up and down the street.  I can only imagine he was looking for the culprit that just beat me up. “What’s the matter kid?” I was embarrassed that he saw me crying and I mustered “Nothing is wrong… you wouldn’t understand”.   Brushing myself off, I walked to the top of our street.  It met with the wide open expanse of desert.  Walking to the top of a small hill, I looked in the direction of the glider field several miles distant. The sun was glinting off the hangar roofs.  The field that day looked lonely and existed with a coldness that comes with loss of life.  My Dad and I never spoke again of the man, the crash or the glider ride. 37 years later, I still think of the man and his encouraging influence on me. Sometimes, as I’m buckling my harness in the front end of an airliner, I can still see the man’s smile. 
 
 


 
 

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

A review



Inspections – 91.409, 91.411, 91.413, 91.207
            A         AD’s (airworthiness directives)
            V         VOR Check (IFR- 30 days)
             I          Inspections (100 hr & annual)
            A         Altimeter (IFR- 24 mo)
            T          Transponder (24 mo)
            E          ELT (12 mo, 1 hr use or ½ bat. life)
            S          Static & Pitot System (24 mo)
 
VFR Night
            F          Fuses (3 each type, 1 full set)
            L          Landing Light (for hire)
            A         Anti-Collision Light(s)
            P          Position Lights
            S          Source of Electrical Power
 
Special Flight Permit
            Fly to a repair station, delivery or export of
an aircraft, flight tests, customer demo, remove aircraft from area of impending
danger.
 
Preflight Action – 91.103

N         Notams

W        Weather

K         Known ATC Delays

R         Runway Lengths (any flight)

A         Alternatives

F          Fuel Requirements

T          Take-off Distance (any flight)

 

Required Equipment – 91.205 - VFR Day                                    

            A         Altimeter

            T          Tachometer

            O         Oil Pressure Gauge

            M         Manifold Pressure Gauge (alt. eng.)

            A         Airspeed Indicator

            T          Temperature Gauge (Liquid Cooled)

            O         Oil Temperature Gauge

            E          ELT (emergency locator transmitter)

            F          Fuel Gauge (each tank)

            L          Landing Gear Position Indicator

            A         Anti-Collision Lights (after 3/11/96)

            M         Magnetic Compass

            E          Emergency Equipment (for hire, over water 91.509)

            S          Safety Belts

 

Types of Airpspeed                                                               Types of Altitude

            I           Indicated (Read off instrument)                                 I           Indicated (Read off instrument)

            C         Calibrated (IAS corrected Position)                           P          Pressure (Alt. above 29.92 plane)

            E          Equivalent (CAS corrected Compressibility)             D         Density (PA corrected non-std temp)

            T          True (EAS corrected non-std pressure & temp)         A         Absolute (AGL)

                                                                                                            T          True (MSL)

Airspace – AIM Chapter 3

A         18,000 MSL – FL600, Requires IFR, Clearance, Mode C Transponder, Two Way Radios

            No VFR, Speed – up to Mach 1

B         SFC – 10,000 MSL, Requires Clearance, Mode C Transponder, Two Way Radios (VOR if IFR)

            VFR – 3 sm Clear of Clouds, Speed – 250 KIAS in B, 200 KIAS Below B

C         SFC – 4,000 AGL, Requires Positive Communication, Mode C Transponder, Two Way Radios

            VFR – 3 sm 1000’ above, 500’ below, 2000’ hz, Speed – 250 KIAS, 200 KIAS sfc area to 2500’

D         SFC – 2,500 AGL, Requires Positive Communication, Two Way Radios

            VFR – 3 sm 1000’ above, 500’ below, 2000’ hz, Speed – 200 KIAS

E          S          Surface

            E          Extension (surface extension to B, C, D)

            T          Transition (700’ or 1200’AGL)

            A         Airways (1200’AGL to 17,999 MSL)

            D         Domestic En Route (as needed)

O         Offshore (12 mi. from Coast to 17,999 MSL)

G         General (above G & above FL600)

            E          VFR <10,000 MSL - 3 sm 1000’ above, 500’ below

                        VFR >10,000 MSL – 5 sm 1000’ above, 1000’ below, 1 sm hz.

            G         Uncontrolled Airspace (not A, B, C, D, E)

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Flying to Alaska from the lower 48

Below is a reprint of an article in the "General Aviation News" about flying North. Enjoy...

Pilot offers advice on Alaska flying

By BILL WALKER
Air charter company owner Will Johnson built a successful business over the past three decades flying tourists, hunters and fishermen around Alaska. And, in the process, the 20,000-hour pilot, who operates Yute Air Taxi in Fairbanks, has had plenty of time to formulate advice for aviators contemplating their first trip to his home state.
“Start with research on the Internet about what’s available there or in print,” Johnson said. “In earlier times you would get a copy of the Milepost magazine and that is still a good idea. Sporty’s carries all of your charts for Canada. Get the Alaska Highway Chart ($11.45). It’s a long strip chart that Canada has made that covers just the highway. You don’t have to buy six different sectionals. Also get the Canada Supplement ($29) and the Alaska Supplement ($6.30).
He also suggested online research to determine how to meet the border crossing requirements for U.S. Homeland Security and Canada.
Will Johnson 2Johnson is an engineer by training and that was reflected in the step-by-step planning for his first trip to Alaska 35 years ago.
“The first thing we did after we decided to go, we started making lists,” he said. “We made pages and pages of lists in the finest of details, knowing there were no stores on the way. And the lists included what we needed to meet the survival list requirements for Canada and Alaska. At the time, there were seven of us in two airplanes. After the lists were made we started weighing everything together and made weight and balances. When we got finished both airplanes were at full gross weights. We kept playing with the lists to figure out what we should leave behind. We always wanted to be able to top off with full fuel.”
That first trip was in a Cessna 172 with long range tanks. He still considers the Skyhawk ideal for an Alaska trip. The second aircraft was a Piper Tri-Pacer with long-range tanks.
Be flexible in trip planning and expect the unexpected, he advises, offering an example of how he and his family almost didn’t get past the second day of that 1977 trip.
“We went from Branson, Mo., to Denver to Red Lodge, Mont.,” he said. “At Red Lodge we were virtually wiped out before we left the United States. The airport is on a bluff overlooking the town. The old timers at the airport said they thought there would be a storm that night. We just laughed, because this was mid to late June. Sometime in the night the most awful storm came up and blew our tents down. The tails of our planes were sitting on the ground under the heavy snow. It almost blew the airplanes off the cliff. We had some screw-in tie-downs that we used and I think the planes would have gone off if we hadn’t used that. Some gear went off the cliff into town. Everything was covered in mud and we had to spend a day in a hotel cleaning up.”
Johnson didn’t know it then, but the worst of the trip had passed with the storm. They crossed the border at Cut Bank, Mont., entered Canada at Lethbridge, Alberta, and flew north and west to intercept the Alaska Highway at Fort St. John.
“On the interior route, the Alaska Highway, I think the weather is better, although they get some pretty significant thunderstorms in the afternoon sometimes with hail,” he said. “And you have a highway below in case you had to land on it. And all along the route there are many great places to land and camp.”
“That first time the scenery was almost overwhelming,” he said. “You literally get ‘sceneryed’ to death. It was remote and wild and I just didn’t care for the big cities and traffic so everything I disliked about the heavily populated areas I liked about Alaska. Our first visit was the adventure of a lifetime. Every pilot should make this trip once.”
Nine years later he returned with his wife Debbie to live permanently in Alaska and has made the trip to the Lower 48 about a dozen times since using all the standard routes.
Johnson was already a flight instructor when he arrived in Alaska in 1977 and he said he marveled at the aircraft he saw when he landed the first time on old Phillips Field in Fairbanks.
“I was blown away by the number of small planes, steel tube, fabric airplanes of all kinds, sizes, makes; none of them were show quality airplanes. I realized that these airplanes were incredibly valuable. That’s how people got around. And I was so fascinated by the fact that these planes were a serious tool for people and not just a toy or plaything.”
Johnson recommends several sections en route as special.
“The Liard River Valley between Fort Nelson and Watson Lake is remarkable,” he said. “Coming out of Fort Nelson you can fly the river valley. The canyon is spectacular with tight turns and rapids. We did not go all the way to Watson Lake that day but stopped at the airstrip about 10 miles past the Liard Hot Springs and camped at the site of the old Jolly Rogers Mine. You can still see the strip on Google Earth but I don’t know the condition now.”
“Another place I have stopped is Burwash Landing beside Kluane Lake between Whitehorse and the Alaska border. It’s a beautiful lake. From there you can fly on to Northway, Alaska, about 150 miles away, and clear customs. But there is no fuel at Northway.”
In Canada you’re going to encounter mostly good airports, according to Johnson. “But the moment you hit Alaska, the runways are sometimes short and often covered with gravel. So brush up on your short field techniques and soft field techniques too.”
Operating on gravel poses a big threat to propellers, particularly for pilots who don’t know how to taxi on a gravel strip.
“If you go to Alaska and look at the air taxi planes that are being flown by new pilots from the Lower 48, they’ve all but destroyed the propellers,” he said. “Everybody says that when you’re on gravel be gentle with the throttle. Often, that is only partly right. When you taxi off a gravel runway, stay into the wind as much as possible and always park into the wind. What happens is that your prop is making a little vortex, a little tornado below the prop, and the wind bends that little tornado back and the rocks go behind the propeller. No wind is bad and wind is your friend if you use it correctly to protect your propeller. Try to stop with the nose wheel heading straight ahead. And when you start up again, you are going to come out and make a turn. Roll straight ahead before you make a fairly quick turn, using your momentum to minimize the amount of time you have your tail to the wind. But don’t lock the brake or you’ll dig a hole in the gravel and then get stuck. If you hear the rocks hitting your prop, those are just dollars coming out of your pocket.”
Expect to find friendly people all over Alaska but not as much help as you’re accustomed to in the Lower 48 when you land, Johnson said. “What happens is when you get to the bush airports, the operator, the charter operator, he may have fuel. But he is so busy trying to run this charter operation that his services are sometimes going to be less than you experience at a regular FBO. That’s not his business.”
Johnson’s final words of wisdom for Alaska trip planners: “Bring plenty of bug dope,” he laughed. “We do have a few mosquitoes.”

Saturday, December 28, 2013

When conducting a flight...

When conducting a flight...
A checklist that I use for all flights from local "around the patch" to long country flights is listed below. Yes, I realize that this may not include every item that you prefer, but the list covers the basics of requirements for Pilot-Aircraft and the environment you plan on operating in.  If you were familiar with each item on this list and ensured all was legal, your most difficult FAA ramp check would be a non-event. Please comment if I have left out any glaring omissions.
AIRCRAFT  Current TT______
Last Annual_________
Last 100 hr_________ if appl
ELT Date__________
Transponder Check_______
Last IFR Check___________
Fuel Onboard___________
GPS Data Card__________
VOR Check_____________
Maint issues____________

PILOT
Current Medical_________
Pilot license type________
BFR Currency___________
IFR Currency____________
90 Day/Night Currency____
I       Illness
M     Medication
S       Stress
A       Alcohol
F       Fatigue
E       Eating

FLIGHT PLAN
IFR/VFR Navigation Log
*Consider special airspace*
NOTAMS
TFR’s
Weather – Departure, Enroute, Arrival
Winds Aloft
Complete Nav Log
Calculate Fuel Required   B.A.R.   Burn-Alternate-Reserve
Calculate Weight and Balance
Calculate Take-off/Landing Perf
Freq for Flt Plan open/close